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Ashley Solomon, Psy.D is a psychologist who specializes in the treatment of eating disorders, body image, trauma, and serious mental illness.

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17 Feb

Could a recovery app help you beat an eating disorder?

Ideas to Consider 4 Comments by Ashley @ Nourishing the Soul

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When people talk about how hard eating disorder treatment is, it’s not often the actual sessions with a therapist or dietitian or the meal group they’re attending that they’re talking about. It’s usually the time in between session that poses the biggest challenges for individuals working their way into recovery. And while the meetings with providers can help guide someone on the right path, it’s generally the time outside of those meetings that make up the steps to real recovery. That’s when real life happens.

Real life is hard work, and it’s the stuff that challenges all the plans and commitments made in the safety of a therapist’s office. Whether it’s developing a plan to utilize a coping skill or practicing mindful eating at each meal, memory and motivation can easily wane when someone finds himself on his own.

That’s why both professionals and recovered people alike decided that there had to a better way to help people stay connected and committed to their goals. If only there was a device that was nearly always with you that could track data and send alerts… and maybe it could even make calls too? Oh, yes! Your mobile phone!

Many individuals with eating disorders are downloading a secret weapon in their battle against their eating disorder. Tucked between their Instagram account and Candy Crush are mobile apps that are helping these individuals stay on track. There are a number of apps out there, but some of the most popular include Take Control, Recovery Record, and Rise Up + Recover.

How do they work? They harnass several of the factors that we believe are important to recovery and make them completely mobile. They center heavily around the concept of self-monitor, meaning that users can document things like what they ate for each meal, if they engaged in any eating disorder behaviors, and if they were able to practice copings skills. Many of the apps will offer positive reinforcement — a virtual high-five — when, for example, someone practices mindful eating.

Some apps allow that accountability extend to an individuals providers’ as well, allowing their progress and struggles to be seen in real-time by their therapists or dietitians. This can not only save time in the next session, but it gives more accurate and thorough information to the people who need it.

Apps can also help track your moods, eating patterns, and other factors and alert you if you are at high risk to engage in binge eating, for example. Many people with eating disorders report feeling that the time before a binge episode feels like their on “autopilot,” so getting a notification that to proceed with caution and reminder to go engage in some self-care could help stave off the behaviors before they begin.

Most of the app creators caution that they apps are most helpful in conjunction with traditional treatment, at least right now. A team at Drexel University will soon be studying if these apps could replace certain aspects of treatment at some point. In the meantime, though, apps can provide a great avenue of additional and unique support outside of the therapy room.

Nothing is a panacea, of course, and one of the issues that these apps’ developers are facing is that users sometimes abandon them not long after downloading. That’s where, I believe, using them as a tool in your ongoing treatment will help. When your therapist is checking in and helping facilitate the use, retention is likely to improve. And just like in therapy, it’s up to the individual to be honest and open when logging meals or determining the trigger for a purging episode.

But for individuals who are ready and willing and confront their eating disorder, apps can provide an effective, efficient, real-time tool.

Have you ever used a recovery app? If so, what was your experience like? If not, would you ever consider it? 

 

**If you weren’t able to join me for the recent AED TweetChat on recovery apps, you can read the transcript here.

03 Feb

Trigger Warning: Are These Warnings Really Helpful?

Ideas to Consider 3 Comments by Ashley @ Nourishing the Soul

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{image credit :: World Bank Photo Collection}

Amanda Marcotte, a writer over at Slate, recently 2013 the “Year of the Trigger Warning.” She points out that trigger warnings have proliferated across the blogosphere in the past year, expanding their reach in the type of sites on which they appear and content from which they attempt to protect readers. Marcotte highlights the outrage that was met by Shonda Rhimes when the show she created, Scandal, failed to provide a warning to viewers of a rape that was depicted on the show. Rhimes eventually acknowledged the purported mistake and tweeted, “I agree that a trigger warning would have been a very good and responsible thing.”

So what’s a trigger warning? While they’ve been used widely in the feminist blogosphere, trigger warnings aren’t particularly common in more mainstream media. They refer to the act of alerting a reader or viewer of material that could be potentially evocative and create distress. They often appear briefly but boldly at the start of a post or other media and list the specific content that might be disturbing to some individuals. Example: [Trigger Warning: Suicide, Rape]

Some suggest that trigger warnings are more common among feminist writers and artists because there is an increased attunement in these communities to the pervasive effects of trauma. The idea, it seems, is that these warnings allow individuals to make more informed and conscious decisions about what they are prepared to ingest. If someone has recently gotten clean from drugs, for instance, they may choose not to read an article with detailed descriptions of substance abuse.

Trigger warnings are all too common in the eating disorder community as well, at least in the community that is recovery-focused. There seems to be an expectation of curtesy among individuals with eating disorders and those who write about them to alert readers if the content could be disturbing or “triggering” to others.

But there remain a couple fundamental issues when it comes to trigger warnings that, to me, feel unresolved.

First, what does the term “trigger” even mean? Is it a noun or verb or both? It strikes me as an interesting word choice that has evolved to have so much meaning. The first definition listed by Merriam Webster for the word “trigger” refers to the lever that one finds on a gun to fire it. I think there’s a bit of irony there in using a word that refers to force and violence when talking about something evoking difficult or unwanted feelings.

The second definition reads, “something that causes something else to happen.” And this is where I struggle with the concept of triggers. From my vantage point, I see the idea of “triggers” referring to things that evoke strong emotions in the “triggered” person. Perhaps other uncomfortable experiences like re-enactments or flashbacks could occur to.

But I often hear the idea of triggers being used to refer to something that, like the definition says, “caused something else to happen.” But the truth is, it takes a multitude of factors for any given behavior or event to happen. Specifically, something that “triggers” one person to engage in self-harm may have no impact on someone else.

The chain events is more complicated than the idea of “triggers” allows. Take eating disorders, for examples. We sometimes use the analogy of eating disorders being like a gun. Genetics shape and mold the gun, the environment loads the gun, and certain events (e.g. bullying, dieting) pull the trigger. But if there was no gun to start with, or if it hadn’t been loaded, pulling the trigger would be impossible or non-eventful.

I personally feel that there may be an over-reliance on this concept. I think it over-simplifies the situation and externalizes the root of the feelings (e.g. “Seeing her eat that pizza triggered me to binge,” rather than considering what you were feeling prior to seeing her eat that, how hungry you were, the availability of binge food, etc.).

Back on the issue of trigger warnings in media, the other issue that is yet unresolved is the very basic question of whether these warnings are actually helpful or effective. For one, I think many people who may be most vulnerable to content (and who could potentially benefit from avoiding reading the post) are often the same people who will read it. This is part because there’s the fact that we are all a little rebellious (who doesn’t at least want to press that button that says not to press it…).

This is also because these are individuals who are emotionally struggling and often in need of support and relating. Personally, whenever I’ve struggled with something difficult, I’ve found myself seeking out stories of others going through the same thing. It made me feel less alone. Misery loves company, after all… So when they come across an article about something they personally have experienced (e.g. death of a friend, physical abuse, miscarriage), they may be more inclined to read it, even if they may be too emotionally vulnerable to do so.

Spending so much time recently turning this idea over and over in my head, I did a review of the research. I figured that that would help me better assess the utility of trigger warning. But it turns out that there’s really nothing out there that I could find addressing this issue. Basically, we don’t know if and how trigger warnings impact readers or viewers. I’d actually love to start doing some research on this, as it’s fascinating to me.

So we are left to rely on our own intuition. It could be that trigger warnings become a slippery slope of individualized censorship, or they could be protective of individuals who are too vulnerable in the moment for exposure to certain things.

I don’t have a firm answer, as I think this issue isn’t black and white and I like to consider what the data tells us before being more decisive on an issue (and there’s none! at least not that I’ve found — if you can, please let me know!).

I will say that I fear trigger warnings might be an example of falsely satisfying our own sense of altruism but not actually helping people. One writer had some interesting questions that he asked about trigger warnings, but summed up that he supposed they couldn’t harm anyone. I think it’s possible that they could (even while helping others). Perhaps perpetuating the idea of “triggers” could be harmful in and of itself, as it takes away from the complexity of given issues. Perhaps it gives us a false sense of security, or even keeps people in a pattern of avoiding things that would ultimately be helpful to have exposure to and work through (with a trained therapist, in many cases, of course).

But what do you think? Should writers include trigger warnings? Have they been helpful for you? 

02 Dec

When Couples Face an Eating Disorder

Ideas to Consider 1 Comment by Ashley @ Nourishing the Soul

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{via Creative Commons}

I read a disturbing piece a few weeks ago about a man in the U.K. who became so enraged at his girlfriend for failing to eat his mother’s cooking that he ended up stabbing her with a fork and knife. The injuries resulted in the woman suffering a collapsed lung. The woman reportedly had an eating disorder.

Andrew Auwkit, the attacker, called the woman a “fussy eater,” according to court reports, and lunged at her chest with the cutlery. The judge in the case described Auwkit as losing his temper when his girlfriend did not “appreciate” the meal.

While obviously extreme, this horrendous event made me think about all of the couples out there in which one partner struggles with an eating disorder. It’s not often that you hear of an eating disorder spurring physical violence, but I most certainly hear often of the immense stress the eating disorder puts on a relationship. In a situation in which a partner has a propensity for violence, I can easily see how someone can end up hurt.

What about those couples in which a partner might not resort to physical aggression, but still lacks the capacity to deal with the stress and strain a challenging mental condition puts on a relationship? The result might not be a collapsed lung or even any mark that can be seen by the naked eye, but that doesn’t mean that harm is not the outcome.

That harm can manifest as vicious insults or verbal slaps in the face, nasty threats or exasperated shakes of the head. Perhaps more often than not, it looks like nothing at all: partners living on opposite ends of the house, speaking infrequently in a deafening silence. It’s the kind of harm that someone walking in doesn’t see, but they certainly feel.

Couples dealing with eating disorders contend with a third member of their relationship: an insidious disease that can occupy their home and hearts. To borrow from Jenni Schaefer’s description of the eating disorder as a nasty ex-boyfriend cleverly named Ed, the “other man” (or “other woman,” as the case may be) isn’t just seen on the sly. Over time, he moves himself on in and becomes part of the fabric of the relationship.

Another recovery-advocate and writer, Shannon Cutts, has a quote I love. She says that “relationships replace eating disorders.” I think that this goes both ways. Eating disorders, if left untreated, begin to replace and erode relationships. People will come to my office and swear that despite their eating concerns, their relationships have been left unscathed. Sadly, with just a bit of minor digging, serious cracks are revealed. I hate to overgeneralize, but I feel confident in this case in saying: eating disorders destroy relationships.

It might not mean violence or threats or verbal lashings, but eating disorders prevent true intimacy. One cannot be preoccupied by something (food, weight, etc.), hiding something, and caught in a shame spiral, and have a healthy relationship.  It doesn’t work.

Unfortunately, partners (like caregivers) only rarely get the support they need to learn how to manage their own feelings about the intruder in their relationship. Dr. Cynthia Bulik and her team at the University of North Carolina have tried to address this with their UCAN (Uniting Couples in the treatment of Anorexia Nervosa) study. The program evaluates treatments to so that we can determine what approaches help couples best face these illnesses.

We need more programs like this. We need to support not only individuals in addressing their eating disorders, but couples and families in doing the same. If partners want to be involved, they should be. If they don’t want to be involved in treatment, that should be explored. Often there’s fear or denial behind that stance, and it might take time and education to help them understand that their participation is

Do I think that support could have prevented the tragedy that happened in the UK? Considering Auwtik was released from prison the day the attack occurred, maybe not. But could other harm, the more subtle, but also toxic kind of harm that so many couples face, be avoided with supported? I think so.

Do you think it’s helpful to include partners and other family members in treatment? Should they receive their own counseling? 

18 Nov

Hunger

Advocacy No Comments by Ashley @ Nourishing the Soul

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{via Creative Commons}

As we look toward the season of abundance to come, there are 47 million Americans who will be faced with some extraordinary challenges. They will lay down at night, in beds or elsewhere, wondering how they will afford to feed their families. The children, 22 million of them, will wonder how much they’ll get to eat tomorrow, and if it will be enough.

Food insecurity is a challenge that more Americans that we realize – or want to realize – face each day. And it’s a challenge that will only become even more acute assome benefits of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, a federally funded effort, loses five billion dollars in support this November.

The support initially came from the 2009 stimulus package and was intended to assist as so many more of our citizens were faced with food insecurity following the financial crisis. Now, those benefits are ending, but the number of Americans in this situation remains too high.

Hunger plagues them.

Another number that’s far too high: eleven million Americans who struggle with eating disorders. They face challenges this season too: navigating tense family gatherings centered around food, battling a life-threatening illness, and fighting for the treatment that they desperately need.

Many dread the merriment that surrounds the season, knowing that it brings for them more stress and strain. It’s like someone with alcoholism being forced to spend Thanksgiving in bar. If they escape, they face isolation that can be equally painful. And so they stay, surrounded by the thing that tortures them.

And those that want to seek help during the holidays face wait lists for treatment that are far too long. They face insurance companies that deny them the coverage to treat their illness, despite being mandated to do so by law. They face family members and a society who think they need to just “eat a donut” or join Weight Watchers.

Hunger plagues them.

I’ve said before that the issue in this country is not an obesity epidemic but a hunger crisis. And the holiday season can shine a bright light on its many manifestations.

When sitting down to a holiday meal this season, I don’t want you to feel guilt for having food that others don’t or being able to eat it when others can’t. What I do want you to do is to take a moment to reflect upon the ways in which hunger takes root in our country.

Food insecurity and eating disorders share more in common than is obvious at first look. They are endemic issues that are often pushed under the rug because they are less than pleasant to consider. We’d rather ignore them than to face their harsh realities. They both deserve our thoughtful awareness and attention. They people who battle with them deserve our respect and support.

Confronting the truth and facing the stigmas alone goes a long way in creating solutions. If the food insecure and those with eating issues are treated as second-class citizens, we’ll never be able to develop effective ways to make things better.

As we glide into this season, let’s also take time to talk about these hunger crises. Maybe some of the answers to them aren’t as different as we think.

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